Resolution on Zimbabwe

We the participants of the Forum of NGOs participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair, held at Ngor Diarama Hotel, from November 20 – 22, 2004,

Recalling the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Resolution on the Protection of Human Rights defenders in Africa adopted at its 35th Ordinary Session on 4June 2004 in Banjul, The Gambia

Recalling the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 53/144 of 9 December 1998 which outlines the Rights and Responsibilities of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms,

Stressing that the prime responsibility and duty to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Zimbabwe lie with the State,

Emphasizing the important role that individuals, civil society organizations and groups in Zimbabwe play in the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Alarmed at the government of Zimbabwe’s imminent intention to promulgate NGO and Election legislation which will result in the following:

a. Closure of some NGOs
b. Criminalization of human rights defenders and their work
c. Banning of foreign funding of human rights organisations and human rights defenders
d. Control and manipulation of NGOs and human rights defenders by the executive through a government appointed NGO council and the Zimbabwe Election Commission

The NGO Forum resolves to recommend to the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights to recommend to the government of Zimbabwe;

1. To immediately put an end to any kind of harassment and reprisals against human rights defenders.
2. To restore the independence of the judiciary and to promptly investigate all cases of assault, harassment and intimidation of the judiciary and the legal profession and bring perpetrators to book;
3. To repeal or revise repressive legislation such as POSA and AIPPA to put it in conformity with international human rights standards
4. To invite the special Rapporteur on the African Commission on Human Rights Defenders and the Special representative of the United Nation Secretary General on human rights defenders to visit Zimbabwe to assess the situation of human rights defenders in Zimbabwe
5. To refrain from passing the intended NGO and Zimbabwe Electoral Commission Law in their current form as they violate and impinge on African Charter and other international human rights standards
6. To free the press and allow for greater enjoyment of freedom of expression in Zimbabwe.

The Special Rapporteur on human rights defenders of the African Commission on human and people’s rights

To give particular attention to the situation of human rights defenders in Zimbabwe, and to initiate a process of continuous dialogue with the Zimbabwe government on the situation of human rights defenders in Zimbabwe and provide a report at the African Commission’s at its next session.

Done in Dakar, November 22, 2004

Resolution on Torture in Africa

We, the participants of the NGO Forum participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights and at the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair held in NGOR DIARAMA from the 20th to 22nd November 2004,

Recalling the universal condemnation and prohibition of Torture and inhuman and degrading Sentences or cruel Treatment;

Deeply angered by the persistence and practice of such acts in Africa;

Noting with satisfaction the adoption of the Robben Island Guidelines on the prohibition and prevention of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in Africa, by the ACHPR during its 32nd Session held from the 17th to 23rd October 2002 and the setting up of a follow-up Committee during its 35th Session held from 23rd May to 4th June 2004 in Banjul (The Gambia);

Noting with satisfaction the adoption by the United Nations General Assembly of the Additional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and the appointment of a Coordinator for its ratification;

Recommend to the 36th Session of the ACHPR to:

1. Adopt the recommendations made during the consultative meeting on the implementation of the Robben Island Guidelines in December 2003 in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

2. Request the 36th Session of the Commission to urge the African Countries to:

 Ratify the United Nations Convention against Torture and its Protocol;
 Ratify the Protocol to the African Charter establishing the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and its effective entry into force;
 Avoid and remove all reservations relating to regional and international Conventions against Torture;
 Refrain from formulating reservations against African and international instruments relating to Torture and to remove those already formulated during previous ratifications;
 To refer to the Robben Island Guidelines in the fulfilment of their obligations in relation to Article 5 of the Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights;

3. Systematically use the Robben Island Guidelines as an instrument for monitoring respect for Article 5 of the Charter, during the consideration of the States’ Periodic Reports;

4. Grant a permanent invitation to the regional mechanisms for visits and allow them free access to all prisons and detention centres;

5. Publish a list of the detention centres.

Done in Dakar, the 22nd November 2004
The Forum

Resolution on Cote d’Ivoire

We the participants of the NGO FORUM participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair help at NGOR DIARAMA from 20th to 22nd November 2004,

Considering that since the 1990s, Côte d’Ivoire is in the grip of a cycle of violence leading to numerous and serious abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law;

Considering that these abuses have remained unpunished to this day;

Considering that impunity is one of the major reasons for the persistence of the crisis which led to the outbreak of the war in September 2002;

Considering that the victims of human rights abuses have the right to truth, justice and compensation;

Considering that in order to resolve the Ivorian crisis, agreements have been signed including the Linas Marcoussis and Accra III Agreements which include some constitutional and legislative reforms as well as disarmament;

Considering that the clauses in the said agreements relating to disarmament and constitutional and legislative reforms have not yet been implemented;

Considering that the ceasefire stipulated in these agreements has been violated several times thus jeopardizing seriously the peace process;

Considering that the return of peace and the reunification of the country are essential for the people of Côte d’Ivoire;

Considering the resolution of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights adopted at its 35th ordinary session held in Banjul and the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, particularly resolution 1572 of 15th November 2004 ;

The Forum requests the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights to adopt a resolution recommending to:

1. The State of Côte d’Ivoire

  • To ensure the security of individuals and property in accordance with international provisions relating to the protection of human rights;
  • To put an end to the abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law and the culture and practice of impunity;
  • To immediately implement the agreements of Linas Marcoussis and Accra III by introducing constitutional and legislative reforms and respecting the ceasefire;
  • To strictly abide by resolution 1572 of the Security Council.

2. New Forces

  • To immediately put an end to human rights and international humanitarian law abuses and fight the impunity of these abuses in accordance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ;
  • To abide by the commitments made under the Linas Marcoussis and Accra III Agreements, particularly through disarmament and respect of the ceasefire.

3. France

  • To comply with the mandate entrusted to it by the United Nations Security Council by respecting the international humanitarian law.

4. ONUCI

  • To fulfill its mandate of peacekeeping, particularly by carrying out investigations of the abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law with a view to contributing to the fight against the impunity of the perpetrators of such abuses.

5. International Community

  • To abide by resolution 1572 of the Security Council, particularly its provisions relating to arms embargo, and get involved in ensuring the immediate return of peace and security in Côte d’Ivoire.

6. Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court

  • To react to the case submitted by Côte d’Ivoire by carrying out investigations with a view to determining the existence of international crimes within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court committed in the country since September 2002 and, as appropriate, take legal action against their perpetrators.

Done at Dakar, on 22nd November 2004
The Forum

Resolution on the Situation of the Indigenous Populations in Africa

We, the participants of the NGO Forum participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair held at NGOR DIARAMA from 20th to 22nd November 2004,

Aware of the importance of recognizing and protecting the rights of the minorities and indigenous populations/communities as recognized by the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights;

Recognizing the international law rules for the promotion and protection of the rights of indigenous populations/communities and minorities as guaranteed in the United Nations Declaration on the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, the 169 Convention of the International Labour Organization on indigenous and tribal populations in independent countries, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention of the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Convention on Biological Diversity;

Considering the progress made by the United Nations on the issue, particularly the establishment of a working group on indigenous populations, the appointment of a Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous populations, the establishment of a Permanent Body on indigenous issues, the declaration in 1994 of the Decade for Indigenous Populations, and the on-going work with a view to a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Populations;

Recognizing the commitment of the African Commission expressed through its resolution adopting the report of the Task Force on the situation of the rights of indigenous populations/communities during its 34th ordinary session held at Banjul in November 2003;

Aware of the need for African States and the African Commission in particular to take appropriate measures for the implementation of the report of the Task Force of the African Commission on the situation of the rights of indigenous populations/communities;

Urge the African Commission:

1. To ensure that the report of the Task Force of the African Commission on the rights of the indigenous populations/communities is widely distributed, made available to the indigenous populations/communities, to NGOs involved in human rights and development, to decision makers and other stakeholders interested in providing every possible support to the Experts working group on the rights of indigenous populations/communities in Africa with a view to enabling them to fulfill their mandate effectively;

2. To establish a Special Fund for Africa’s indigenous populations/communities for contributing to the costs relating to the implementation of the mandate of the Experts working group and the development of actions of Africa’s indigenous NGOs;

3. To mobilize the expertise of regional human rights organizations and some United Nations specialized institutions such as UNESCO, ILO, UNICEF, WHO and WIPO for the establishment of pro-active programmes for the promotion of the rights and cultural identity of indigenous populations/communities;

4. To adopt a protocol on the rights of indigenous populations/communities in Africa;

5. To differentiate indigenous populations/communities issues from minorities issues following the example of other human rights organizations and systems, including the United Nations and the Inter-American Organization;

6. To request African States with indigenous populations/communities to take legislative measures or make regulations for the protection of the indigenous cultural identity of some sections of their populations who identify themselves as such;

7. To request the States to take remedial measures against expropriations and spoliations of ancestral lands suffered by several indigenous populations/communities of Africa, particularly the Masai, the Hadzabe, the Pygmies, the Touareg, the Sab, the Ogiek, the Barabaig and the Mbororo;

8. To recommend to the African States to take consistent measures in recognition of the absolute poverty affecting almost all indigenous populations/communities in Africa and ensure that national development and poverty reduction policies address their situation;

9. To recognize the particularly high level of illiteracy among indigenous populations and take the necessary measures for positive discrimination with a view to an education adapted to their way of life;

10. To request the States to take into consideration the impact of the fight against terrorism and security policies on some indigenous communities in certain countries, particularly Algeria, Burkina Faso, /chad, Mauritania, Mali and Niger;

11. To request the States to take effective measures to curb violence against indigenous women and children, particularly during armed conflicts.

Done at Dakar, on 22nd November 2004
The Forum

Resolution on Refugees and Displaced Persons in Africa

We, the participants of the NGO FORUM participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights and at the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair held in NGOR DIARAMA from the 20th to 22nd November 2004,

Having reviewed the problems of refugees and displaced persons in Africa,

Record our great concern on the extremely precarious political and humanitarian situation, particularly in Darfur (Sudan) and in Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa) which seriously threatens peace and stability in Africa;

Draw the attention of the International Community and that of the African countries on the impact of the “Readmission and Transit” Accords as envisaged in the Convention on the Right to Asylum;

Welcome the appointment of a Special Rapporteur on Refugees and Displaced Persons by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and note with satisfaction the measures taken by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights aimed at ensuring more significant protection for refugees and displaced persons in Africa.

Note with particular satisfaction that the Commission has finally accepted this constant and repeated request;

Express our availability and willingness to collaborate closely with the Special Rapporteur and recommend to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights the reinforcement of its mandate by guaranteeing it full autonomy and freedom of action in the execution of its duties;

Recommend to the African Commission to ensure the follow up of the resolutions and decisions taken in the past relative to refugees and displaced persons in Africa;

Recommend to the Commission to pay special attention to the protection of vulnerable groups, notably women and children;

To the African States we recommend:

• The strengthening of the mechanisms of protection of economic, social and cultural rights of refugees and displaced persons;
• The harmonisation of national legislation with international rules of protection of refugees and displaced persons in Africa and request States which have not yet ratified the Convention of 1951 and those of the OAU (AU) of 1969 to do so without delay;
• Finally, the establishment of legal procedures at the national and regional levels for the protection of displaced persons in Africa in order to fill the legal gap which exists in the protection of these groups, even if in times of conflict these displaced persons are accorded the same protection as other civilian victims by the Geneva Conventions, for as it is, no legal text is exclusively devoted for their protection.

Done in Dakar, the 22nd November 2004

Recommendation on the Freedom of Expression in Africa

We the participants of the Forum of NGOs participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair held at Ngor Diarama Hotel, from November 20 – 22, 2004,

Deeply concerned about the state of freedom of expression in many African Countries;

Noting with concern the continued harassment, arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, exiled and the execution of journalists in the continent;

Considering the hostile environment in which journalist in the continent carry out their work;

Worried about the negative use of the media in ethnic and religious issues by warlords, politicians and other members of civil society;

The Forum recommends that the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights:

  • appoint of a Special Rapporteur on Freedom of expression.
  • Provide adequate resources for the Rapporteur to effectively carry out his/her mandate.
  • ensure that press laws and constitutional provisions on the continent are in conformity with the African Charter and with international principles regarding the media.

 

Done in Dakar, November 22nd, 2004

Resolution on Women Human Rights Defenders

We the participants of the Forum of NGOs participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair, held at Ngor Diarama Hotel, from November 20 – 22, 2004,

Considering the specific threats and attacks faced by African Women Human Rights Defenders in their daily activities against the backdrop of increasing religious fundamentalism as well as the security climate in the fight against terrorism;

Further considering that women are still victims of the constraints of culture, traditions and the patriarchal structure of the society which confine them to a limited role and stigmatize them in their daily activities;

Further concerned by the use by State and ever increasing non state actors of repressive methods aimed specifically at Women Human Rights Defenders and by the condition of Women Human Rights Defenders in situations of armed conflict who are particularly exposed to physical, moral and sexual violence that are used by certain aggressors as weapons of war.

Noting the negative perception against Women Human Rights Defenders whose increasing numbers have accentuated fears about any change in the status quo giving rise to accusations that they are promoting western values;

Aware of the need for sensitization and training of Women Defenders in all areas related to their protection and the promotion of their work, particularly the sensitisation of their immediate environment, through the incorporation of instruments for their protection into domestic laws and their access to the media and other means of communication;

Recognising the dire need for Women Human Rights Defenders and their organisations to formulate measures and strategies to strengthen their organisations in areas of training, resources and capacity building especially in monitoring and documenting Human Rights violations;

Decide to strengthen Women Human Rights Defenders by building networks for their support at the national, regional and international levels as a mechanism for their protection as well as a platform to interface with the Special Rapporteur of the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR) and the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for human rights defenders.

Commit ourselves
to establish an African Network of Women Human Rights Defenders in Africa with the support of the African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies (ACDHRS) in collaboration with the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues (FIDH), the International Service for Human Rights (ISHR) and the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders, a joint programme of the FIDH and World Organization Against Torture (OMCT).

With a view to more effectively protecting African women human rights defenders, the participants recommend:

To the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights to urge its Member States of:
• Strive to end all forms of repression against human rights defenders, particularly women defenders, and guarantee their physical and moral integrity in all aspects of their work;
• Put in place mechanisms designed to ensure full compliance with the provisions of the 1998 Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, the additional Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women and all the regional and international human rights instruments, and to also ratify these instruments, for those states that have not yet done so, as well as ensure their incorporation into domestic laws;
• Extend an open invitation to the Special Rapporteur and the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for human rights defenders to visit their countries in order to assess the situation of human rights defenders, particularly women defenders;
• Unanimously ratify the Additional Protocol establishing the African Court on Human and People’s Rights and adopt a declaration regarding article 34.6 allowing NGOs, individuals and particularly women human rights defenders to directly engage the Court;

To the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights to:
• Renew the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on human rights defenders and provide the office with adequate resources to efficiently discharge its mandate;
• Strengthen cooperation between Mme Hina Jilani, UN Special Representative on human rights defenders, with the other intergovernmental mechanisms for the protection of human rights defenders and with the Special Rapporteur on women;

Done in Dakar on 22 November 2004

Resolution on the Death Penalty

We, the participants of the NGO Forum participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Book Fair on Human Rights held at NGOR DIARAMA from 20th to 22nd November 2004,

Recalling that death penalty remains more than ever a topical issue, be it in terms of the risk of conviction to death penalty in the majority of African countries or the resumption of executions in some States;

Underscoring that death penalty is against human dignity and contradicts the very notion of the freedom of the human being by its irreversible character;

Underscoring that death penalties are often passed after unfair trials and that people from minorities or foreigners are convicted to death penalty in disproportionate numbers;

Recalling that the international law fosters the abolition of the death penalty since it is a restriction to the right to life and that several international and regional instruments abolish the death penalty;

Recalling a resolution of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights of 15th November 1999 requesting the States to implement a moratorium on executions and urging them to abolish the death penalty;

1. NGOs present at the Forum request the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ rights to call upon:

1. de jure abolitionist States to sensitize other States to the need of abolishing the death penalty and actively support the world day against the death penalty (10th October);
2. de facto States to change from moratorium (de jure or de facto) to abolition incorporated in their legislation;
3. retentionist States to respect in all circumstances the guarantees provided for by the international law with regard to the death penalty, limit the number of crimes calling for the death penalty, and adopt a moratorium as soon as possible as a first step towards the abolition of the death penalty;
4. the States to ratify the second Optional Protocol relating to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights aimed at the abolition of the death penalty;
5. the Member States of the African Union to prepare a Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights providing for the abolition of the death penalty.

Done at Dakar, on 22nd November 2004
The Forum

Resolution on the Human Rights Situation in Darfur

We the participants of the Forum of NGOs participating at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the 10th African Human Rights Book Fair, held at Ngor Diarama Hotel, from November 20 – 22, 2004,

Considering the provisions of the Constitutive Act of the African Union, the Charter of the United Nations Organisation as well as those of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and other regional and international human rights instruments to which the Sudan is a state party and noting that Sudan is legally and morally bound to fully and effectively implement the provisions of these instruments and to respect and promote the human rights and fundamental freedoms set therein without discrimination on any ground;

Deeply concerned at the grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in the Darfur region of western Sudan, in particular, reports of systematic attacks on civilians, targeting of villages and centres for internally displaced persons and of civilians by the Janjaweed militia; the removal by force of, inter alia, Fur, Zaggawa and Massaleet communities from their villages; the forced relocation of IDPs to insecure areas and the lack of adequate protection of and assistance to civilians by the government of Sudan; the widespread recourse to rape and other forms of sexual violence, including against children, as a means of warfare in violation of both human rights law and international humanitarian law and the abduction and forced labour of women and children;

Welcoming the signing of the two Protocols on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur and on the Enhancement of the Security Situation in Darfur agreed by the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Abuja Nigeria, on 9th November 2004 with the mediation efforts of the African Union (AU) and the international facilitators;

Encouraged that the Protocols called for a halt of all hostilities, military actions, and reconnaissance operations including hostile military flights over Darfur as well as for the neutralisation and disarmament of the Janjaweed and other militias controlled by the government and acknowledging that the parties also agreed to allow unrestricted access to the region by humanitarian relief organisations and to take steps to prevent all attacks, threats, intimidation and violence against civilians by any party or group, including the Janjaweed and other militias and to guarantee the safe return of IDPs and refugees to their areas of origin;

Welcoming the appointment by the UN Secretary General of an International Commission of Inquiry to “investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law in Darfur by all parties, to determine also whether or not acts of genocide have occurred, and to identify the perpetrators of such violations with a view to ensuring that those responsible are held accountable”;

Fully supporting the establishment of the International Commission of Inquiry as a step towards ending the impunity with which massive and systematic violations of human rights and humanitarian law are being committed in Darfur, and believing that the Commission will play an important role in ending the suffering of the people of Darfur and eventually in restoring peace and security in this troubled region of the world; and

Deeply appreciative of the decision of the African Commission to send a delegation to assess the human rights situation in Darfur earlier this year,

The Forum call upon the African Commission to undertake further appropriate measures within the parameters of its mandate to seek to ensure that the Government of Sudan complies with its obligations under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and other relevant instruments, and in particular to:

1. Fully and unconditionally respect its obligations under the Constitutive Act of the African Union, the Charter of the United Nations Organisation as well as the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and all other regional and international human rights treaties to which the Sudan is a state party.

2. Halt immediately all attacks against civilians in Darfur and end the grave violations of human and peoples’ rights in particular the forced de-population of entire areas in the region, and to cease all support, including the provision of supplies, to the Janjaweed militia, the continued attacks of which are aggravating the most precarious situation of the internally displaced persons in the region.

3. Provide the necessary support to all international agencies and humanitarian organisations in order to ensure immediate, full, safe and unhindered access to the affected people in Darfur in order to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance to these people.

Similarly, the Forum call upon the AU and the International Community to:

4. strongly support the work of the International Commission of Enquiry and urge all parties to the conflict in Darfur, in particular the government of Sudan, to cooperate fully and unconditionally with the attainment of the Commission’s task of identifying precisely what crimes have been committed in the Darfur region, as well as those responsible, with a view to bringing them to justice and repairing the damage done to the victims

5. take measures to ensure that parties to the conflict respect the agreed upon November Protocols in letter and in spirit, to adopt effective punitive measures against the defaulting parties, and to send a clear message as to the strength of the international community’s resolve to end this crisis. In order to ensure effective monitoring of the ceasefire agreement by the AU, parties must comply with the requirements of the ceasefire including provision of information on troop movements.

6. consider increasing its police and military deployment and the extension of the mission mandate to include a clear and specific obligation to ensure the protection of civilians. Further, if the Government of Sudan continues to be unable or unwilling to disarm and demobilize the Janjaweed militia, as has been demanded by the UN Security Council in Resolution 1564, the AU should be specifically mandated with this task. We call upon the international community to support the AU in its efforts to help end the crisis in Darfur including by providing all equipment, logistical, financial, material, and other resources necessary to support the rapid expansion of the mission.

7. work towards creating the conditions of security which will permit civilians to return safely to their homes of origin, when they voluntarily so decide. In this regard, measures ostensibly taken to provide protection and assistance to the displaced including through the creation of “safe designated areas” must not contribute to the prolongation of displacement or be a cover for the permanent resettlement of the displaced outside their areas of origin. Occupation of settlements from which the displaced have been forcibly removed must not be permitted.

8. call for the abolition of the specialized criminal courts as they do not conform to the standards and procedures applied by both Sudanese and international law.

9. call for the release of all political prisoners and prisoners of conscience and the release of those who have been held without charge and trial for prolonged periods in contravention of Sudanese and international law. The safety of those who have suffered or witnessed human rights violations, and their right of freedom of expression, must be secured.

10. bring pressure to bear on all parties to generate the political will to reach a political solution to the crisis, particularly building on the basis of the November agreements.

Done at Dakar, Senegal, on 22nd November 2004